Implant loss: Risk associated with genetic predisposition

The endogenous immune response to inflammation also plays a key role in peri-implantitis. A documented genetic predisposition should therefore always be taken into account in treatment planning.

Jaw model with implant

Interleukin-1 polymorphism and implants

Dental implants bring about a considerable amount of planning and financial outlay. In order not to jeopardize the success of implantation, reducing the levels of periodontopathogenic bacteria prior to implantation is therefore strongly recommended, because these bacteria can also cause peri-implantitis. A link also exists between the occurrence of IL-1 variations and peri-implant complications. This is particularly the case when smoking or contamination with periodontopathogenic bacteria are present as additional risk factors.

What must be borne in mind before implantation?

Because people with dental implants who are IL-1 positive are particularly sensitive to pathogenic bacteria, prior knowledge of the patient’s tendency to inflammation can have a considerable influence on the success of treatment. These patients should avoid additional risk factors as far as possible, for example, and be integrated into a regular recall system. If implantation is planned for a patient who smokes and who has already suffered tooth loss as a result of periodontitis, determination of the IL-1 genotype is strongly recommended. For the implantologist, testing represents an opportunity to safeguard against implant loss and potential claims for compensation.

Unfavorable combination: Genetic predisposition and smoking

With osseointegrated implants, smokers per se exhibit significantly higher complication rates, an increased risk of post-operative infections and greater bone loss. This tendency is exacerbated if interleukin-1 polymorphisms are also present. As a consequence, 50% of those patients in particular who exhibit a variation in the IL-1 gene cluster and who also smoke are likely to face significant complications or even implant loss. A long-term study over a 10-year period also showed that, besides regular recall visits and nicotine consumption, the patient’s interleukin-1 risk type is of crucial importance to long-term treatment success.