What do these associations mean in practice?
It should be made very clear to the patient that the risk of periodontitis is greatly increased if he/she smokes despite IL-1 polymorphism. The patient should also be encouraged to maintain a particularly careful and regular oral hygiene routine. This is because, in such cases, even small quantities of bacteria may be sufficient to trigger severe inflammation. Existing evidence of IL-1 polymorphism can therefore help to motivate patients to give up nicotine and improve their oral hygiene habits. If the patient is unable to stop smoking, particularly careful monitoring is required, based on a regular recall schedule.