Bacteria on the implant

Just like periodontal disease, peri-implantitis is triggered by a group of certain bacteria. For the most part, these are even the same bacteria that are associated with both diseases.

a group of rod-shaped bacteria

The bacterial load on diseased implants is not only twice as high as on healthy ones, there are also significantly more periodontopathogenic bacteria, which are predominantly members of the red and orange complex. Bernd Sigusch and colleagues investigated the colonization of implants with periodontopathogenic bacteria in detail. They compared implants from patients who had natural teeth when implanted, with edentulous patients. The results suggest that the natural tooth serves as a source of infection for peri-implant diseases, since the periodontopathogenic bacteria on the implant are not only significantly more common in the presence of natural teeth compared to edentulous patients, but also reflect the bacterial spectrum of the natural tooth.

No implant with existing periodontitis

Therefore, it is not surprising that patients with a history of periodontitis have a 5-6-fold increased risk of peri-implantitis with a severe clinical course and require a longer treatment duration. If the patient is currently experiencing periodontitis, the risk for peri-implant diseases even increases up to seven times. Periodontitis is therefore regarded as a significant risk factor for peri-implant infections. For this reason, the first implantological imperative states that no implantation may be performed unless the periodontal disease has been successfully treated. A microbiological test shows the presence of periodontopathogenic bacteria and helps to successfully treat periodontitis. In addition, after completion of periodontitis treatment it can be determined, if the periodontopathogenic bacteria were sufficiently reduced. This way, the risk of peri-implantitis can be minimized in advance of the implantation.